March 29, 2007
Malibu, Calif. -
THIS WEEK: The nationally-ranked Pepperdine baseball team, winners of three straight West Coast Conference (WCC) titles, will begin defense of its 2006 championship when it opens conference play against Saint Mary's Friday at Eddy D. Field Stadium beginning at 3 p.m.
The series continues with a 1 p.m. contest on Saturday and concludes Sunday at 1 p.m.
The series will match the WCC's top two pitching and hitting teams. Pepperdine tops the conference with a .329 batting average and 3.23 ERA, while Saint Mary's is second in both categories, possessing a .314 team batting mark and 3.82 ERA. It will also feature the WCC's top pitcher in Pepperdine junior All-American Barry Enright (6-1, 1.37) and leading hitter in Saint Mary's freshman infielder Randy Wells (.417-1-25).
The Waves are 20-8 on the season, marking their best start since the 1999 club opened the year 25-3 through 28 games and is the third-best record by a Pepperdine team since 1991 when the Waves began that season 22-5-1.
Pepperdine was last in action on Monday and defeated UC Santa Barbara, 11-3, to complete a series win over the Gauchos. The Waves opened with a 16-1 victory at UC Santa Barbara on Saturday before being shutout 7-0 on Sunday. Monday's win gave Pepperdine three wins in four games against the Gauchos this season, while outscoring them 40-23 and collecting 56 hits.
Friday's WCC opener marks the first of six straight conference games for Pepperdine, which will host local rival Loyola Marymount in a three-game series April 5-7 at Eddy D. Field Stadium.
WAVES ON THE INTERNET: A total of 44 regular-season games will be broadcast live on the Internet at www.PepperdineSports.com with live video webcasts for home games. Gametracker also will be available at www.PepperdineSports.com. Veteran announcer Larry Burnett will provide play-by-play for the Waves this season.
NATIONAL POLLS: Pepperdine begins play this week ranked No. 10 by the National Collegiate Baseball Writers Association (NCBWA), No. 12 by Baseball America and ESPN/USA Today, and No. 17 by Collegiate Baseball. Saint Mary's is 16-9-1 and unranked.
BEST 30-GAME STARTS: Victories in the first two games of this weekend's series will give Pepperdine a 22-8 record and mark the 10th-best 30-game start. The Waves' best-ever 30-game start came in 1999 when they opened that campaign 27-3. The 1999 team started the year 24-5-1 while the 1963 and 1979 clubs began posted 24-6 marks.
UC SANTA BARBARA RECAP: Pepperdine made it three wins in four games against UC Santa Barbara after taking two of three from the Gauchos over the weekend. The Waves opened the series with a 16-1 in Santa Barbara on Saturday, fell 7-0 on Saturday before winning the series finale, 11-3, on Monday. Pepperdine outscored the Gauchos 40-23 and collected 56 hits in four games. In Saturday's opener, the Waves established season-highs for runs and hits (18) in the contest to back seven solid innings from junior All-American Barry Enright. Juniors Donald Brown and Danny Worth led the Waves with three hits apiece while senior Luke Salas and freshman catcher Travis Tartamella homered. Pepperdine totaled a season-high nine extra base hits in the game as Worth had two doubles and a triple, and Brown had a pair of doubles. UC Santa Barbara evened the series behind the solid pitching of junior left-hander Chuck Huggins and reliever Matt Wade. Huggins allowed three hits, four walks and struck out four in six innings and was backed a seven-run second inning. Worth hit a three-run home run, senior left fielder Luke Salas collected three hits and sophomore left-hander Robert Dickmann pitched five effective innings to help the Waves to an 11-3 win on Monday. Pepperdine erased a 2-0 deficit with a four-run fourth inning and broke the game open with a seven-run fifth as it sent 10 batters to the plate. For the second time in three games, every Waves batter in the starting line-up had at least one hit.
ABOUT SAINT MARY'S: Saint Mary's enters West Coast Conference play with a 16-9-1 record and has won seven of its last nine. The Gaels had their six-game winning streak snapped after losing 7-3 at Nevada on March 20. Saint Mary's is batting .314 as a team and has a collective ERA of 3.82. The Gaels have six players batting .300 or better and led by freshman infielder Randy Wells, who is batting .417 with a home run and 25 RBI. Sophomore infielder Joel Staples has a .333 average and tops the club with six home runs and 30 RBI. Head coach Jedd Soto is in the midst of his fourth season and has compiled an overall record to date of 76-105-1 (.420).
SERIES VERSUS SAINT MARY'S: Friday's game will mark the 135th meeting between Pepperdine and Saint Mary's and the Waves lead the all-time series, 111-23. Pepperdine has won 14 straight over the Gaels dating back to 2003. Saint Mary's last win over the Waves came in the first meeting of the 2003 campaign.
FRIDAY'S STARTER: Junior right hander Barry Enright will make his ninth appearance and start of the season against Saint Mary's on Friday. The junior All-American is 6-1 with a 1.37 ERA. In a team-leading 59.0 innings, Enright has allowed 45 hits, 13 runs (nine earned), walked six and struck out 38. Enright's last start came on Saturday at UC Santa Barbara and he earned the victory after pitching 7.0 innings, allowing four hits, one run, walking one and striking out six. Enright has worked 7.0 innings or more seven of his eight starts. He enters Friday's game with a 29-4 and tied with Dan Haren (199-01) for third place on Pepperdine's all-time career wins list. He also is tied for sixth on the program's all-time starts list with 46. Enright began the 2007 season as a preseason All-American was named to the 2007 Roger Clemens Award Watch List and Brooks Wallace Award Watch List. Enright was tabbed the West Coast Conference's (WCC) Co-Pitcher of the Year and a first team All-WCC selection after posting a 13-2 record and 4.05 ERA in 2006.
ENRIGHT VERSUS SAINT MARY'S: Barry Enright enters Friday's start with a 2-0 career record and 3.38 ERA in two games against Saint Mary's. He made one start against the Gaels in 2006 and earned a win after pitching 6.1 innings, scattering nine hits, allowing four runs and striking out six.
ENRIGHT VERSUS THE WCC: Barry Enright begins this season with a 13-0 career record and 3.08 ERA against the West Coast Conference. In 17 starts, Enright has logged 108.0 innings, allowed 126 hits, 37 earned runs, walked 20 and struck out 59. He went 5-0 with a 2.76 ERA in seven starts a year ago.
SATURDAY'S STARTER: Sophomore right hander Brett Hunter will make his 11th appearance and eighth start of the season on Saturday. He is currently 4-2 with a 3.05 ERA and two saves. In 44.1 innings of work, he has allowed 31 hits, 20 runs (15 earned) walked 25 and struck out a team-high 41 batters. He is two strikeouts shy of equaling his career-high of 43 set last season. Hunter last pitched on Sunday and the shortest outing of his career as a starter after lasting just 1.1 innings, allowing two hits, six runs, three hits and striking out one in a loss to UC Santa Barbara. As a starter, Hunter is 4-1 with a 2.52 ERA while working 39.1 innings and limiting opposing batters to a .173 average. The Waves are 6-1 in Hunter's seven starts. The sophomore right hander opened the season as the Waves' closer and registered a save in the season-opener at UNLV. Hunter, a preseason All-American, went 5-3 with a 2.83 ERA and 11 saves a freshman in 2006.
HUNTER VERSUS SAINT MARY'S: Brett Hunter has made two career relief appearances, has two saves and has not allowed a run in 1.2 innings against Saint Mary's.
HUNTER VERSUS WCC: During his rookie season in 2006, Brett Hunter made eight appearances, including one start, and went 2-0 with a 4.60 ERA and four saves. In 15.2 innings, he has allowed 17 hits, eight earned runs, walked three and struck out eight.
SUNDAY'S STARTER: Sophomore left-hander Robert Dickmann, a transfer from UCLA, will make his 10th appearance and start of the season on Sunday. He is currently 2-1 with a 4.20 ERA. Dickmann has allowed 46 hits, 21 runs (19 earned), walked 15 and struck out 27 in 40.2 innings. He last pitched on Monday against UC Santa Barbara and earned his first win since February 25 against Fresno State after pitching a 5.0 innings, allowing seven hits, two earned runs and striking out one. Over his last five starts, Dickmann is 2-0 with a 2.67 ERA while working 27.0 innings and limiting opposing hitters to a .245 average. He picked up his first career win against Fresno State on February 25 after pitching 5.1 innings. Dickmann was 0-0 with a 10.38 ERA while making six relief appearances in 2006.
OLBRYCHOWSKI NAMED TO CBF HONOR ROLL: Junior right hander Adam Olbrychowski was named the College Baseball Foundation's Honor Roll for his performance last week. Making a start against No. 19 USC on Tuesday and pitching in relief against UC Santa Barbara, Olbrychowski went 1-0 with a 0.75 ERA. He logged 12.0 innings, scattered eight hits, allowed one earned run, walked one and struck out five while limiting opposing batters to a .182 average. In a start against USC, the Waves' right hander pitched 6.1 innings, allowed five hits, two unearned runs, did not walk a batter and struck out two. After allowing two unearned runs in the first inning, Olbrychowski retired 17 consecutive batters before allowing back-to-back one-out singles in the seventh inning. He appeared in relief against UC Santa Barbara, inheriting a bases-loaded one-out situation, and after allowing three consecutive singles, retired 15 of the final 16 batters he faced, including the last 10.
WORTH 7TH ON DOUBLES LIST: Junior shortstop Danny Worth has 51 career doubles to tie David Uribes (2003-06) for seventh place on Pepperdine's all-time doubles list. He is three doubles shy of tying Jared Pitney (1998-01), Dane Sardinha (1998-00) and Danny Garcia (1999-01), who are fourth with 54. Worth currently leads the Waves with 11 doubles on the season. Scott Shockey (1986-89) is the all-time leader with 60 doubles. Worth totaled 24 doubles in 2006, two shy of the single-season record of 26 set by Dane Sardinha in 1999.
WORTH THE IRON MAN: Since making his collegiate debut, February 5, 2005 versus UC Santa Barbara, junior shortstop Danny Worth has played in 154 consecutive games and made 152 consecutive starts dating back to February 12, 2005 when he made his first career start against Cal Poly. His 154 games played are second on the Waves to senior left fielder Luke Salas, who has appeared in 206 games and started 188.
ENRIGHT TIED FOR THIRD ON CAREER WINS LIST: Junior Barry Enright holds a 29-4 career record and is four wins shy of tying Mike Fetters (1984-86) forsecond place on Pepperdine's all-time wins list. He is currently tied with Dan Haren (1999-01), and along with Haren and San Diego's Aaron Wilson (2001-04) is ninth all-time in WCC history. His .879 winning percentage ranks first in Waves history. Steve Duda (1990-93) is first in all-time career wins after registering a 44-9 record.
MORE ENRIGHT: Junior right hander Barry Enright has made eight starts this season to bring his career total to 46 and tie him with Brandon Boesch (2001-04) for sixth on Pepperdine's all-time starts list.
HUNTER TIED FOR FIFTH IN CAREER SAVES: In less than two seasons, sophomore Brett Hunter already has cracked Pepperdine's Top 10 in career saves. Hunter posted 11 saves as a freshman last season and with two saves this year is tied with Steve Montgomery (1990-92) for fifth place with 13. He is three saves of tying for third all-time.
SALAS 200-100 MAN: Senior left fielder Luke Salas reached the 200 hit plateau against UC Davis earlier this season. He enters Friday's game against Saint Mary's with a .314 career average. Salas, who has 229 career hits is eight shy of tying for 10th place on Pepperdine's all-time career hits list. The Westlake Village resident also has 105 career RBI.
ORTIZ FIFTH ON ALL-TIME TRIPLES LIST: With four triples this season, junior center fielder Adrian Ortiz ranks fifth on the Waves' all-time career triples list. His 12 triples tie place him two behind Ralph Sheffiled (1982-83), who totaled 14 for his career.
IMPRESSIVE ARMS: The Pepperdine pitching staff has been impressive so far this season. The Waves enter Friday's game with a WCC-leading 3.23 ERA and is holding opponents to a .236 average. Through 28 games, Pepperdine hurlers have allowed three runs or less 18 times.
JUST FOR STARTERS: Over the last 10 games, Pepperdine has received outstanding starting pitching. Barry Enright, Brett Hunter, Robert Dickmann and Adam Olbrychowski have worked a combined 59.2 innings and registered a 6-1 record, 2.74 ERA and limited opposing batters to a .226 average.
DOMINGUEZ CLOSES: After starting the second game of the season at UNLV, junior right hander Jason Dominguez has taken over the closer's role previously held by sophomore Brett Hunter, who was inserted into the starting rotation. He has made 14 relief appearances, earned seven saves and has a 1-1 record and 2.93 ERA while throwing 15.1 innings. Dominguez now has nine career saves and is one shy of tying for 10th on Pepperdine's all-time list.
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES: The Waves are 6-3 against ranked opponents...Pepperdine is batting .329 as a team and has a collective ERA of 3.23...The Waves' .329 mark currently would break the program's singles-season record of .328 set in 1987...Pepperdine is averaging 11.43 hits and 6.7 runs a game...Pepperdine has been a dominant team at home, registering a 13-3 record, batting .343 and posting a 2.25 ERA...The starting weekend rotation of Barry Enright, Brett Hunter and Robert Dickmann has a combined record of 12-3, 2.52 ERA and is holding opposing batters to a .227 average while making 23 starts...Junior shortstop Danny Worth has hit safely in 13 straight games while batting .379 (22-58) with 13 runs scored, five doubles, two triples, three home runs and 15 RBI...Senior Luke Salas has is batting .432 (19-44) with nine runs, a home run and six RBI while hitting safely in 11 straight games...Sophomore Chase d'Arnaud, who had his career-high 16-game hitting streak snapped Sunday against UC Santa Barbara, has batted safely in 21 of his last 22 games (.386-3-18)...Freshman left-hander Jordan Durrance has allowed just one run in 12 relief outings covering 9.0 innings.
ENRIGHT NAMED TO BROOKS WALLACE AWARD WATCH LIST: Pepperdine junior right handed pitcher Barry Enright was one of 148 players named to the 2007 Brooks Wallace Award Watch List, the College Baseball Foundation announced on Tuesday. The Brooks Wallace Award is presented annually to the national college baseball player of the year. Houston pitcher Brad Lincoln won the award in 2006. Enright brings impressive credentials into the 2007 season after posting a 23-3 record and 4.30 earned-run average in two seasons for the Waves. The Wallace Watch will be trimmed to 12 semi-finalists by late May. Then the selection committee will narrow the list to three finalists following the NCAA Super Regionals, prior to the College World Series. The finalists, their head coaches, and their parents will be invited to Lubbock, TX, for a schedule of special events tied to the award banquet, which will again be nationally televised by Fox Sports Network and Fox College Sports.
TWO WAVES NAMED TO ROGER CLEMENS AWARD WATCH LIST: Pepperdine junior Barry Enright and sophomore Brett Hunter were two of 62 players named to the 2007 Roger Clemens Award preseason watch list for the fourth annual Rogers Clemens Award that goes to college baseball's top pitcher. The finalists for the 2007 Roger Clemens Award will be selected in voting by a national panel that includes: all Division 1 head baseball coaches, a selection of national media who cover collegiate baseball, the 16 winners of the R. E. "Bob" Smith Award, which was presented to the top player in the country in Houston in 1988-2003. In addition, the 10 previous finalists for the Clemens Award are also issued ballots. The 2007 award will be presented at a gala dinner next July.
THREE WAVES NAMED PRESEASON ALL-AMERICANS: Junior right hander Barry Enright, sophomore reliever Brett Hunter and junior shortstop Danny Worth were named preseason All-Americans. Enright received All-American recognition by Collegiate Baseball and the National Collegiate Baseball Writers Association (NCBWA) while Hunter and Worth were recognized by the NCBWA and Collegiate Baseball, respectively. Enright went 13-2 and posted a 4.05 ERA in 2006 while Hunter put together an outstanding rookie campaign as he went 5-3 with a 2.83 ERA and 11 saves a year ago. Worth batted a career-best .310 with 24 doubles and 38 RBI as a sophomore in 2006.
COLEMAN RECEIVES JOHN SCOLINOS AWARD: Paul Coleman, who concluded his career tied for second in appearances, was honored with the 2007 John Scolinos Distinguished Player Award following the Pepperdine baseball team's annual alumni game on January 27. The award, in its third year, is given annually to a Pepperdine baseballplayer in recognition of exemplary behavior during a season or career in the name of the legendary Scolinos, who was Pepperdine's head coach from 1946-1960. The recipient will be honored for demonstrating strong character traits, including humility, resourcefulness, loyalty, honesty, work ethic, Christian behavior and sportsmanship, which contribute to outstanding performance and dedicated efforts both on and beyond the baseball diamond. Cory Brightwell was the first recipient of the award in 2005 and Steve Kleen was the 2006 recipient.
WAVES POST 29TH STRAIGHT 30-WIN SEASON: For the 29th straight season, Pepperdine posted a 30-win season in 2005. The Waves posted a 42-21 overall mark. Dating back to the 1978 season, the Waves have totaled at least 30 wins every year, 40 wins 13 times and posted two-50-win campaigns.
PEPPERDINE DOMINANT FORCE IN WCC: Since the West Coast Conference (WCC) implemented divisional play in 1999, Pepperdine has been the conference's dominant team, compiling a WCC record of 164-67 (.710) over the last eight-plus seasons, an average of 20.5 wins per season, captured seven divisional crowns, three conference titles and appeared in the WCC Championship Series each year of its existence. Over that same time period, San Diego has the second-best league mark, registering a 131-99-1 (.569) record, claiming two divisional titles and winning two WCC Championship Series.
FIVE WAVES SELECTED IN 2006 MLB DRAFT: For the 32nd consecutive year, Pepperdine had at least one player taken in Major League Baseball's annual amateur draft in 2006. Junior catcher Chad Tracy was chosen in the third round by the Texas Rangers, while senior left-hander Paul Coleman was a 12th round selection by the Los Angeles Dodgers. Junior Justin Tellam was picked in the 14th round by the Houston Astros, senior first baseman Nick Kliebert was drafted in the 25th round by the San Diego Padres and senior second baseman David Uribes was selected by the Cleveland Indians in the 32nd round.
WAVES CAPTURE 16TH WCC CHAMPIONSHIP: Pepperdine captured its 16th West Coast Conference (WCC) title after taking two of three at San Francisco in last year's WCC Championship Series. Pepperdine's 16 conference titles are the most by any of the eight teams in the league. Since the WCC was re-instituted for baseball prior to the 1985 season, the Waves have either won or shared 13 of the last 22 league championships. Additionally, since the WCC began sponsoring a championship series, Pepperdine is the only member to appear in all eight. Last year's WCC title was the Waves' third straight and fourth overall since 1999. Pepperdine also captured the conference title in 2001 when it went 42-18 and finished the year with a national Top 20 ranking. Pepperdine captured back-to-back titles for the first time since winning three straight between 1991 and 1993.
THIRTEEN WAVES NAMED TO WCC 40TH ANNIVERSARY TEAM: Pepperdine placed a conference-high 13 players on the West Coast Conference's (WCC)/Rawlings 40th Anniversary Team that was announced by the league office on Wednesday. The 40-man team was selected by a 30-member voting panel comprised of WCC administrators, league institutions, national collegiate baseball writers and local media members. Those eligible for nomination were student-athletes that participated in the sport of baseball at one of the WCC's eight current member institutions from 1968 to 2006. Also eligible for nomination were student-athletes who participated for any of the five WCC institutions that took part in Northern California Baseball Association (NCBA) and Southern California Baseball Association (SCBA) play from 1977 to 1984. The 13 Pepperdine players named to the team include 10 All-Americans, three Freshman All-Americans, one Academic All-American, five WCC Players of the Year, five conference Pitchers of the Year and three Freshmen of the Year. Additionally, 10 players went on to play Major League Baseball. The list of Waves named to the team consists of Patrick Ahearne, Steve Duda, Mike Fetters, Dan Haren, Rick Hirtensteiner, Mark Lee, Noah Lowry, Steve Montgomery, Steve Rodriguez, Dane Sardinha, Mike Scott, David Uribes and Randy Wolf.
HOME FIELD ADVANTAGE: Since Eddy D. Field Stadium opened in 1973, Pepperdine has been a tough team to beat at home, compiling an overall record to date of 741-283-12 (.721) and registering just one losing season in 33 years. The Waves were 9-12 in the inaugural season of 1973 and since then has produced 32 winning seasons in the last 34 years, including a 23-11 record in 2006. The Waves have had 29 straight winning seasons at home and are 13-3 in 2007.
WAVES AMONG TOP TEAMS IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA: Since 1979, Pepperdine is the second-winningest program in Southern California, trailing only Cal State Fullerton, heading into the 2007 season. The Waves have registered a 1,089-567 (.657) record and made 17 NCAA Tournament appearances during that time. Cal State Fullerton has compiled an overall record of 1,254-526 (.704) and made 23 NCAA appearances. Pepperdine's 17 NCAA Tournament appearances are second behind the Titans.
THE PROGRAM: In the midst of its 68th season of intercollegiate competition, the Pepperdine baseball program has compiled an all-time mark to date of 1,772-1,230-22 (.590). The Waves have advanced to the NCAA Championships on 23 occasions, and Pepperdine has participated at the College World Series twice--finishing third in 1979 and winning the national title in 1992. Pepperdine has won 30 or more games in each of the last 29 seasons dating back to 1978, and surpassed the 40-win mark on 13 occasions during that time span. Since the West Coast Conference was re-instituted for baseball prior to the 1985 season, Pepperdine has either won or shared 13 of the last 22 league championships. Dating back to the start of the 1985 campaign, Pepperdine has compiled a cumulative record of 875-460-11 (.654), including a 466-159-2 (.745) mark against league opponents.
Steve Rodriguez: Steve Rodriguez, a former collegiate All-American and a member of Pepperdine's 1992 College World Series Championship team, begins his fourth season as the Waves' head coach. Rodriguez was hired on June 18, 2004 after serving as an assistant for four years under Frank Sanchez. In three seasons, Rodriguez has led the Waves to a 133-84 (.613) record, three West Coast Conference (WCC) titles, three NCAA Regional berths and two national Top 25 rankings. He guided Pepperdine to a 30-32 overall record and into the championship game in 2004 Fullerton Regional Championship game, becoming the fifth head coach in program history to lead his club to post-season play in his rookie season, joining Gary Marks (1963), Dave Gorrie (1979), Andy Lopez (1989) and Pat Harrison (1995). In 2005, the Waves compiled a 41-23 overall record, reached the championship game of the Long Beach Regional and concluded the year ranked No. 23 nationally. A year ago, Rodriguez guided Pepperdine to a 42-21 overall record, a WCC title and an NCAA Regional appearance. The Waves hosted the Malibu Regional and reached the championship game for the third straight year. During Rodriguez' four seasons as an assistant, the Waves compiled an overall record of 145-98 (.597), including an 88-32 mark in WCC play, captured the conference title in 2001 and made NCAA Tournament appearances in 2001 and 2003. Rodriguez, who earned All-American honors in 1991 and 1992, became only the third former Pepperdine player to assume the head coaching duties for the Waves in the program's 64-year history. Gary Marks became the first Pepperdine player to pilot the program when he skippered the program from 1963-67. Gail Hopkins, who played at Pepperdine from 1962-64, coached the Waves during the 1968 season. Rodriguez was a fifth-round draft pick of the Boston Red Sox in 1992 after helping the Waves' to the national championship and being named the WCC's "Player of the Year." He played professionally for seven years with the Red Sox, Detroit Tigers, Los Angeles Dodgers and Montreal Expos organizations. Rodriguez made it to the major league level with the Red Sox and Tigers in 1995. As a sophomore in 1991, Rodriguez batted .419, the second-highest single-season average in school history. His 104 base hits in 1991 are a Pepperdine record, and his .367 career average ranks second all-time in Waves' history.
WAVES AT HOME: Since 1997, the Waves are 218-101 (.683) in games played at Eddy D. Field Stadium. The Waves' all-time home record at Eddy D. Field Stadium, dating back to the start of the 1973 season, currently stands at 741-283-12 (.721). Pepperdine concluded the 2006 season with a 23-11 home mark and is 13-3 in 2007.
WAVES ON THE ROAD: Since 1997, Waves are 164-144 (.532) in games played on the road. Pepperdine completed the 2006 campaign with a 29-10 road record. The Waves have registered winning road records in seven of the last 10 seasons. Pepperdine is 5-5 in "true" road and 2-0 in neutral field games in 2007.
ON THE WEB: For updated information concerning Pepperdine athletics on the World Wide Web, please bookmark the following address: http://www.PepperdineSports.com
FOR MORE INFORMATION: For more information on the baseball program, or to arrange interviews with players and the coaching staff, please contact Al Barba at the Pepperdine Sports Information Office by calling (310) 506-4455.